棒球规则-好球、坏球

棒球中有一个非常重要的概念是好球带(Strike Zone)
MLB官方棒球规则中,对好球带做了标准定义:
The STRIKE ZONE is that area over home plate the upper limit of which is a hori- zontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap. The Strike Zone shall be determined from the batter’s stance as the batter is prepared to swing at a pitched ball. (参考:Official Baseball Rules P21)
中文解释翻译为:
好球带是指位于本垒板上方的特定空间,他的宽度和深度与本垒板相同,上方和下方的位置则取决于打者的身高和站姿。任何合法的投球在传过好球带的范围后,都会被判为好球;如果所投出的球没有擦到任何好球带的范围,且打者又没有挥棒的话,那么该球将被判为坏球。”(摘自《圖解棒球完全BOOK》P70
关于好球带的描述,有几个要点需要提到:
  1. 这是一个立体的空间,可想象为五边形向上延伸的立体空间
  2. 好球带的上缘为打者肩膀上部与裤子上边的中心线;好球带的下缘为膝盖中心
  3. 球穿过好球带立体空间任何部分即为好球
  4. 好球带根据打者的身高及站姿不同而不同,所谓站姿是以准备挥棒时的站姿为准

MBL Strike zone

(图1 好球带说明,来自Official Baseball Rules P22)
案例说明:
下图为铃木一郎(Ichiro Suzuki)的好球带,对照MLB棒球规则中的说明,可以很明显的看到这是一个立体的空间。
MBL Strike zone ichiro

(图2 Ichiro的好球带,来自Wikipedia词条Strike zone P27)
好坏球的裁定:
裁判好坏球并非易事,正常情况下球从出手到进入捕手手套,只需要0.4s-0.6s时间,穿过好球带的时间可能只有0.01s-0.02s,如果遇上变化球等更难判断。(数据来源:wiseGEEK文章 What Is the Strike Zone in Baseball? 
关于好坏球的裁定是属于裁判(主审)主观上的判断,这一点是不容置疑的,裁判的判决就是最终的判决。整个比赛场上,除了摄像机(MLB职业比赛),就只有捕手和主审最了解此球是好球还是坏球,而有执法权的只有主审。任何人对好坏球的判决进行抗争或者质疑,在经过警告之后,可能会被裁判直接判罚出场(ejected),参考规则:

9.02

(a) Any umpire’s decision which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a ball, or whether a runner is safe or out, is final. No player, manager, coach or substitute shall object to any such judgment decisions.
     Rule 9.02(a) Comment: Players leaving their position in the field or on base, or managers or coaches leaving the bench or coaches box, to argue on BALLS AND STRIKES will not be permitted. They should be warned if they start for the plate to protest the call. If they continue, they will be ejected from the game.(参考:Official Baseball Rules P80)
9.02这个规则,以后在棒球裁判等文章中慢慢解释说明。
参考:
  1. 圖解棒球完全BOOK》繁体版P70-71、P84
  2. Strike zone,Wikipedia 
  3. What Is the Strike Zone in Baseball?  ,wiseGEEK
  4. Official Baseball Rules ,美国职棒大联盟(Major League Baseball) ,P21,P22,P80
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